A high-risk pregnancy is characterized as a because of certain factors related to the mother or the fetus.

More precisely the maternal factors are:

  •  the pregnant woman’s age, when she is younger than 15 years old or older than 35
  •  the pregnant woman’s weight, either she is underweight or overweight
  •  the history of complications at previous gestations, such as preterm labor, preeclampsia eclampsia, a fetus of restricted intrauterine growth or intrauterine death
  • more than five gestations


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  • some anatomical variation of the mother, such as uterus bicornuate
  • third trimester bleedings
  • gestational hypertension
  • diabetes mellitus
  • infections of the cervix-vagina or the kidneys
  • Rhesus factor immunization
  • abdominal emergencies that require surgery, such as appendicitis and infection of the gall bladder
  • various chronic diseases, such as asthma, sickle cell anemia, diseases of the heart and kidneys, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, autoimmune diseases and others
  • pregnancy after fertility treatments
  • repeated miscarriages
  • hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism


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The fetal factors are:

  • viral infections, such as herpes, measles, scarlet fever, chicken pox, coxsackie viruses
  • bacterial or parasite infections, such as syphilis and toxoplasmosis
  • harmful substances, such as tobacco, alcohol, narcotics
  • various genetic situations, such as Down syndrome, problems of the heart, the lungs and kidneys
  • multiple pregnancy

During a high-risk pregnancy, the pregnant woman must be observed with more frequent medical visits to her gynecologist and potentially to other doctors (endocrinologist, cardiologist or other doctors, according to the occasion), with specialized examinations depending on the problems that the mother faces and frequent ultrasonography to observe the fetus.