Menopause, by definition, is a woman’s last menstrual period. As a woman ages, this becomes a permanent and not irreversible condition, considering her reproductive system.

Menopause is diagnosed after 12 months of amenorrhea and is referring to a variety of symptoms such as:

  • Menstrual period disturbances
  • Hot flashes
  • Dry vagina, painful intercourse
  • Weight gain
  • Painful breasts
  • Headache
  • Insomnia
  • Mood swings end
  • Depression


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Hormonal changes and clinical symptoms appear during a time that leads to menopause. So, that begins a few years prior to menopause and it is called perimenopause.

Osteoporosis is a disorder of the skeleton that guides to loss of bone mass. Α deterioration in micro-architecture of the bone and a decrease of bone quality, can lead to a higher risk of spontaneous fracture. One out of three women after menopause may appear this condition.

Definitely, age is an important factor that relates to the bone quality. The main definitive factors of maximum bone mass and bone quality seem to be genetic. Many gene polymorphisms, that have an influence over bones, had come to light.

The most popular method of osteoporosis diagnosis is the Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry – DXA of the lumbar spine or the hip. World Health Association (WHO) provided criteria for DXA and this examination is the only test that is official for the diagnosis of osteoporosis.


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The patient’s bone mass compares to the average bone mass of young, healthy women. So, this is how we calculate t-score. As a result, the categories of t-score are : normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis.

Your gynecologist will give you the guidelines as to what you will do, since through modern treatments we can achieve the suspension of bone mass loss. Also, its increase and the decrease of fracture risk.