Endometriosis is a benign condition that is characterized by ectopic development of endometrial tissue outside the uterus.

Endometriosis located mainly at the lesser pelvis, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterine ligaments and the peritoneal cavity. It appears more frequently to women that have not yet a child, but are of reproductive age.

There are many theories for the cause of endometriosis. The predominant is the theory of “direct implantation”, which is the theory that supports that endometrial cells exist in the menstrual blood. Eventually, the cells tend to implant directly to the lesser pelvis after regression, through the fallopian tubes.


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The cells that implanted inside the abdomen cause, by the female hormonal cycles, menstrual periods internally in the abdomen, resulting to the accumulation of blood and creating thus, inflammation, pain and scar tissue.

This creates the image of typical endometriosis on the inner part of the abdomen and it is called peritoneum. Although, the cystic form of the ovaries, called chocolate ovarian cysts of endometriosis.

Women who suffer from endometriosis, often present the following symptoms:

  • pain
  • hemorrhage
  • lethargy
  • nausea
  • chronic fatigue
  • depression
  • relapsing infections, like fungal infections
  • a tendency to pass out during menstrual periods


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The only diagnostic indisputable examination is laparoscopy.

Endometriosis’ therapy can be pharmaceutical, surgical or a combination of both.

The types of therapy depend on the patient’s age. Also, her wish to have babies, the intensity and duration of the symptoms, the stage of the disease. Of course, the doctor takes into consideration whether it is a primary disease or a relapse.

Pharmaceutical (hormonal) therapy includes medication, that cause the suppression of estrogen synthesis and amenorrhea, resulting to the atrophy of the endometriosis tissues. Pharmaceutical therapy is appropriate for patients without extended adhesions and fertility problems, while it relieves from the symptoms (mainly the pain).

Early diagnosis and restoration of the disease’s damage, contribute to endometriosis prevention. Certainly, leads to a better quality of life for many women that suffer from it.